THE NEXT CATEGORY OF HEAVY DUTY ENGINE OILS EXPLAINED
In 2010, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) announced regulations designed to reduce the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mandate fuel economy improvements for medium and heavy duty engines. Two new categories of heavy duty engine oils – API CK-4 and FA-4 – were designed to surpass performance of the current oil category, API CJ-4 and offer better fuel economy.
An ongoing Question and Answer series created to help prepare you for the transition to the Next generation of Heavy Duty Engine Oils (API CK-4 and FA-4).
- Viscosity grades include both SAE xW-40 and xW-30 engine oils with >3.5 cP HT/HS viscosity
- Backward compatible with previous categories: including API CJ-4, CI-4 Plus and CI-4
- Higher level of wear and oxidation protection versus API CJ-4 oils
- Improved shear stability
- Applies only to SAE 10W-30 and SAE 5W-30 viscosity grades that have <3.2 cP HT/HS viscosity
- Demonstrated excellent engine parts protection versus current API CJ-4 oils
Stricter greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations for diesel engines start in 2017 – requiring improvements in fuel economy and lowering of CO2 emissions.
To be phased in between 2014 to 2018, the new regulations would impose different fuel-efficiency targets based on the size and weight of on-road diesel vehicle types.
ENGINE DESIGN CHANGES
Diesel engine design is undergoing a period of significant change, driven by new CO2 and fuel economy regulations.
- Diesel engine downsizing - 15L to 13L
- Down speeding - 1,600 rpm to 1,200 rpm
- Advanced combustion design
- Active oil temperature control
- Variable valve timing
- Start/Stop technology
- Enabling new advancement in diesel engine hardware designs
- Increasing fuel economy through lighter viscosity grade and friction modifiers
- Improving engine durability with new advanced additive chemistry and base oil selection
Diesel engine oils have a vital role:
- Improving fuel economy to reduce CO2
- Maintaining engine durability for current and lower viscosity grades
- Replacing some legacy engines with new EPA2010 model emission designs
- Compatibility with Diesel Particulate Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction to reduce emissions